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Studio sull'Incidentalità dei Motoveicoli

Vi proponiamo un lavoro pubblicato da Austroads, la società stradale australiana, sui casi di incidentalità dei motoveicoli. E' un argomento che molto riguarda anche la nostra realtà urbana in Italia e che potrà essere di utilità a chi lavora nel settore.

In inglese per i nostri lettori poliglotti.

Motorcycle In-depth Crash Study

Motorcyclists represent an increasing proportion of road crash casualties in NSW and Australia. This study aimed to examine the:
•causal relationships between human, vehicle, road and other environmental factors and motorcyclist involvement in serious injury crashes; and
•influence of the total system (i.e. the rider, the vehicles and the crash site) on the nature and pattern of injuries sustained by seriously injured motorcyclists.

A case-control in-depth crash investigation approach coupled with expert multidisciplinary panel review of cases was used. Cases were motorcyclists who had been seriously or fatally injured in a crash on NSW roads. Controls were riders who had ridden, but not crashed on the same section of road where the case crash occurred.

The results indicate that riders using sports motorcycles and who are unfamiliar with their motorcycle, have a greater likelihood of being involved in serious injury crashes than riders using other motorcycle types and those very familiar with their vehicles. Protective factors identified in the case-control analysis included increasing age of the rider, and increased coverage by protective clothing. An additional protective effect was observed when the trip purpose was reported as commuting or general transport rather than for recreational purposes.

Four major themes arose in relation to crash causation and countermeasures: motorcyclists need to be seen; braking ability needs to be optimised; rider control needs to be maintained; and riders need appropriate experience.

Table of Contents
Summary 1. Introduction 1.1 Study Aims
1.2 Report Structure
2. Methods 2.1 Study Development and Ethics
2.2 Data Collection Methods
2.2.1 In-depth crash study (cases)
Medical data
Helmet and clothing inspection procedures
Vehicle inspection procedures
Scene inspections
Police data
Data Management
2.2.2 Fatality study
2.2.3 Case control study
Control recruitment and data collection procedures
2.2.4 Panel review
2.3 Analysis Methods
2.3.1 Description of crash sample and injury outcomes
2.3.2 Case control study
2.3.3 Rider reported environmental factors
2.3.4 Performance of protective equipment
Protective clothing
2.3.5 Qualitative analysis of crash and injury causation factors and potential countermeasures
3. Results 3.1 The Crash Sample
3.1.1 Discussion of the crash sample
3.2 Case Control Sample Comparisons
3.2.1 General characteristics of the case and control samples
Rider licencing and training
Motorcycle factors
Riding Exposure
Association with other riders
Crash and near miss history
Use of protective equipment
3.2.2 Characteristics of the case and control samples related to the site specific ride
Trip characteristics
Impairment and general health
Use of electronic equipment
3.2.3 Important points to note regarding the control sample
3.3 Case Control Analysis
3.3.1 Key findings
3.3.2 Description and explanation of case control analysis
3.3.3 Important points to note regarding the case control analysis
3.4 Rider Reported Environmental Factors
3.4.1 Important points to note regarding rider reported environmental factors
3.5 Injury Outcomes
3.5.1 Important points to note regarding injury outcomes
3.6 Performance of Protection Equipment
3.6.1 Helmets
Helmet damage type
Head and neck injury
Helmet damage location
Helmet type and injury
Major impacts and injury
Devices attached to the helmet shell
3.6.2 Protective clothing
Use of protective clothing by age and bike type
Inspection of protective clothing
Type and distribution of damage to clothing
Upper and lower garments
Clothing type and damage
Clothing type and injury
Clothing damage and injury
3.7 Qualitative Analysis of Crash and Injury Causation Factors and Potential Countermeasures
3.7.1 Common crash types
‘Failed to see’ crashes (36%)
Rider did not stop in time (13%)
Rider made errors in turning or cornering, or lost control while negotiating a bend (35%)
Crashes during overtaking and lane change manoeuvres types (13%)
Crashes involving kangaroos (3%)
Ungrouped crashes (5%)
3.7.2 Crash causation
Road environment
Uncontrolled intersections
Controlled intersections
Left hand turns
Cars parked on the roadway
Lane terminations
Boundaries between speed zones
High frequency lane-changing areas
Lack of shoulders or shoulders of appropriate width and/or quality
Road surfaces
Roadway treatments
Rider factors
Rider inexperience
Inappropriate speed
Travelling too close
Errors in cornering
Braking errors
Rider fatigue
Poor riding techniques
Overtaking behaviour
Rider vision
Vehicle factors
3.7.3 Potential crash avoidance countermeasures
Road environment
Uncontrolled intersections
Controlled intersections
Left hand turn
Parked cars
Roadside furniture
Lane terminations
High frequency lane-changing areas
Road surface
Cars turning into driveways and performing U-turns
Routes frequented by recreational riders
Rider factors
Appropriate experience for ride
Familiarity with the motorcycle
Rider training and education
Following distances
Riding with awareness
Rider fatigue and the effects of distraction
Group riding behaviour
Clothing conspicuity
Vehicle factors
Enhanced brake systems
Intelligent speed adaption and warning systems
Shock absorbing forks
LAMS motorcycles
Rider posture and ergonomics
The other vehicle
3.7.4 Summary of emerging crash causation and countermeasure themes
3.7.5 Injury causation
Road environment
Vehicle factors
Rider factors
3.7.6 Injury countermeasures
Environment factors
Vehicle factors
Rider factors
3.7.7 Summary of emerging injury causation and countermeasure themes
3.7.8 Post crash factors
3.7.9 Important points to note about the qualitative analysis
4. Discussion 4.1 Causal relationships
4.2 Nature and pattern of injury
4.3 Emerging crash prevention themes
4.4 Commonalities across themes
4.5 Protective equipment
4.6 Study limitations
4.7 Areas for further study


Fonte: Austroads